Numerical methods are very powerful tools for use in geotechnical engineering, particularly in computational geotechnics. Interest is strong in the new field of multi-phase nature of geomaterials, and the area of computational geotechnics is expanding.
Alongside their companion volume Computational Modeling of Multiphase Geomaterials (CRC Press, 2012), Fusao Oka and Sayuri Kimoto cover recent progress in several key areas, such as air-water-soil mixture, cyclic constitutive models, anisotropic models, noncoaxial models, gradient models, compaction bands (a form of volumetric strain localization and strain localization under dynamic conditions), and the instability of unsaturated soils.
The text also includes applications of computational modeling to large-scale excavation of ground, liquefaction analysis of levees during earthquakes, methane hydrate development, and the characteristics of contamination using bentonite. The erosion of embankments due to seepage flow is also presented.
Cover Half Title Title Page Copyright Page Table of Contents Preface Acknowledgment Authors Chapter 1 Fundamental equations of multiphase geomaterials 1.1 Composition parameters and fundamental phase relations of porous material 1.1.1 Basic quantities 1.1.2 Volumes of air–water–solid three phases and volumetric strains 1.2 Formulation of the constitutive equations for three-phase porous materials 1.2.1 Introduction 1.2.2 General setting for the theory of three-phase porous media 1.2.3 Thermodynamic formulation for multiphase porous materials 1.2.4 Constitutive equations for three-phase porous material 1.2.5 Elastic constitutive model for three-phase porous materials with interaction between fluids and solid 1.2.6 Volumetric linear elastic model for three-phase materials 1.2.7 Skeleton stress 1.2.8 Suction–saturation relation 1.2.9 Usage of skeleton and effective stresses 1.3 Two-phase theory of porous media and the effective stress 1.3.1 Introduction 1.3.2 Theory of solid–fluid two-phase porous media 18.104.22.168 Material parameters of Biot’s solid–fluid two-phase theory 22.214.171.124 Derivation of the effective stress 126.96.36.199 Undrained conditions 188.8.131.52 Unjacketed conditions 184.108.40.206 Drained conditions 1.3.3 Analysis of the isotropic compression tests on dry sand 220.127.116.11 Isotropic compression tests on dry sandy soil 18.104.22.168 Evaluation of pore air pressure 22.214.171.124 Evaluation of the bulk compressibility 126.96.36.199 Discussion of experimental results References Chapter 2 Constitutive models of geomaterials 2.1 Cyclic elasto-plastic constitutive model 2.1.1 Introduction 2.1.2 Cyclic elasto-plastic constitutive model 188.8.131.52 Total strain rate tensor 184.108.40.206 Overconsolidation boundary surface 220.127.116.11 Yield function 18.104.22.168 Failure conditions 22.214.171.124 Plastic potential function 126.96.36.199 Plastic flow rule 2.1.3 Simulation results 188.8.131.52 Determination of parameters 184.108.40.206 Comparison with experimental results 220.127.116.11 Effect of non-associativity parameter 18.104.22.168 Effect of degradation parameters 2.2 Cyclic elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model 2.2.1 Introduction 2.2.2 Cyclic elasto-viscoplastic constitutive equation 22.214.171.124 Elastic strain rate tensor 126.96.36.199 Overconsolidation boundary surface 188.8.131.52 Static yield function 184.108.40.206 Viscoplastic potential function 220.127.116.11 Viscoplastic flow rule 18.104.22.168 Kinematic hardening rules 22.214.171.124 Total strain rate tensor 126.96.36.199 Determination of material parameters 188.8.131.52 Simulation results of cyclic triaxial compression tests 2.3 Transversely anisotropic and pseudo-anisotropic viscoplastic models 2.3.1 Transformed stress tensor 2.3.2 Transversely isotropic model of clay 2.3.3 Elastic anisotropic model 2.3.4 Current stress-induced pseudo-anisotropic failure conditions 2.3.5 Elasto-viscoplastic constitutive equation for clay based on the transformed stress tensor 2.3.6 Non-coaxiality and deviatoric flow rule 2.3.7 Constitutive equations for large strain 2.4 Constitutive models for unsaturated soils 2.4.1 Overconsolidation boundary surface 2.4.2 Yield function 2.4.3 Kinematic hardening rule 2.4.4 Compression parameter 2.4.5 Hydraulic constitutive equations of unsaturated soil 2.4.6 Simulation of cyclic drained tests for unsaturated sandy soil 2.4.7 Simulation of fully undrained triaxial tests for unsaturated sandy soil 184.108.40.206 Test results 220.127.116.11 Simulation results 2.5 Non-coaxial constitutive models 2.5.1 Introduction 2.5.2 Double shearing model 18.104.22.168 Derivation of velocity equations 22.214.171.124 Double shearing constitutive theory 2.5.3 Anand’s model 2.5.4 Total strain theory and the non-coaxial term 2.6 Gradient-dependent elastic model for granular materials and strain localization solution 2.6.1 First gradient-dependent elastic model 2.6.2 Second gradient-dependent elastic model 2.6.3 Solutions of gradient-dependent elastic models 126.96.36.199 Solution of the second-gradient elastic model 188.8.131.52 Solution of the first gradient-dependent elastic model 2.7 Strain-softening constitutive model considering the memory and internal variables 2.7.1 Introduction 2.7.2 Interpretation of the strain-softening process 2.7.3 Inherent strain measure, stress history tensor, and kernel function 2.7.4 Flow rule and yield function 2.7.5 Elastic boundary surface 2.7.6 Plastic potential function and overconsolidation boundary surface 2.7.7 Strain-hardening and strain-softening parameter 2.7.8 Elasto-plastic constitutive model with strain softening 2.7.9 Uniqueness of the solution for the initial value problem 2.7.10 Simulation of triaxial compression test results of sedimentary soft rock 2.8 Strain-softening constitutive model for frozen soil 2.8.1 Introduction 2.8.2 Elasto-viscoplastic softening model for frozen sand 2.8.3 Instability analysis of the model 2.8.4 Simulation of the triaxial experimental results Appendix A2.1 Convexity of failure surface Appendix A2.2 Hirota’s bi-linear differential operator (Hirota 1976) References Chapter 3 Governing equations and finite element formulation for large deformation of three-phase materials 3.1 Governing equations for three-phase geomaterials 3.1.1 Partial stress tensors for the mixture 3.1.2 Conservation of mass 3.1.3 Conservation of linear momentum 3.1.4 Equation of motion for the whole mixture 3.1.5 Continuity equations for fluid phases 3.1.6 Suction–saturation characteristic curve of unsaturated soil 3.2 Finite element discretization of governing equations 3.2.1 Discretization of equation of motion for the whole mixture 3.2.2 Discretization of continuity equations 3.2.3 Discretization of governing equations in time domain 3.2.4 Final form of discretized governing equations References Chapter 4 Strain localization in geomaterials 4.1 Strain localization modes in porous material: Shear and compaction bands 4.1.1 Strain localization analysis using Mohr’s stress circle 4.1.2 Summary 4.2 Elasto-viscoplastic numerical analysis of compaction bands of diatomaceous mudstone 4.2.1 Introduction 4.2.2 Behavior of diatomaceous mudstone 184.108.40.206 Triaxial testing procedure 220.127.116.11 Triaxial test results 18.104.22.168 Image analysis results 4.2.3 Elasto-viscoplastic constitutive equations 4.2.4 Elasto-viscoplastic finite element analysis 22.214.171.124 Finite element analysis method 126.96.36.199 Numerical results and discussions 4.2.5 Summary 4.3 Numerical analysis of dynamic strain localization of saturated and unsaturated soils 4.3.1 Introduction 4.3.2 Dynamic strain localization analysis of soil 188.8.131.52 Discretization of governing equations and constitutive equations 184.108.40.206 Finite element mesh, loading, and boundary conditions 220.127.116.11 Material and numerical parameters 4.3.3 Numerical results of strain localization 4.3.4 Summary Appendix A4.1 Three-dimensional Mohr stress circle (Mohr 1882; Malvern 1969) References Chapter 5 Instability analysis of water infiltration into an unsaturated elasto-viscoplastic material 5.1 Introduction 5.2 One-dimensional instability analysis of water infiltration into unsaturated viscoplastic porous media 5.2.1 Governing equations 5.2.2 Perturbed governing equations 5.2.3 Instability conditions 5.3 Numerical simulation of one-dimensional infiltration problem 5.3.1 Simulation results of the one-dimensional infiltration problem 5.3.2 Discussions on stability 5.4 Simulation of the experimental results References Chapter 6 Numerical simulation of rainfall infiltration on unsaturated soil slope 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Case study of slope stability 6.2.1 Measurement data and numerical analysis 6.2.2 Effect of permeability References Chapter 7 Dynamic analysis of a levee during earthquakes 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Patterns of failure in river embankments subjected to seismic loading 7.3 Dynamic analysis of embankment 7.3.1 Governing equations 7.3.2 Constitutive equations 7.3.3 Conservation equations and discretization 7.3.4 Simulation model of river embankment and input earthquake 7.3.5 Simulation results 7.4 Summary References Chapter 8 Numerical analysis of excavation in soft ground 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Geotechnical profile at the excavation site 8.3 Outline of the excavation project 8.4 Soil improvement technique 8.5 Excavation process 8.6 Numerical simulation 8.6.1 Elasto-viscoplastic constitutive equation 8.6.2 Determination of material parameters used in the analysis 8.6.3 Numerical modeling of excavation 8.7 Numerical results and comparisons with measurements 8.7.1 Comparison of measured and simulated results 18.104.22.168 Displacement of earth retaining wall 22.214.171.124 Settlements and pore water pressure in layers 8.8 Summary References Chapter 9 Elasto-viscoplastic constitutive modeling of the swelling process of unsaturated clay 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model for unsaturated swelling soil 9.2.1 Model assumptions 9.2.2 Swelling equation for interparticles 9.2.3 Viscoplastic model including swelling effect 9.3 Simulation of swelling pressure tests 9.3.1 Analysis method and the model 9.3.2 Swelling pressure with wetting process 9.3.3 Swelling pressure with different permeabilities 9.3.4 Swelling pressure with different levels of onset saturation for swelling 9.3.5 Effect of γ on the swelling pressure 9.3.6 Effect of A on the swelling pressure 9.3.7 Swelling pressure considering the initial dry density and the water content 9.4 Application to Kunigel GX bentonite 9.5 Summary References Chapter 10 Numerical analysis of hydrate-bearing subsoil during dissociation 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Multiphase mixture theory for soil containing hydrate 10.2.1 General setting 10.2.2 Definition of stress 10.2.3 Conservation of mass 10.2.4 Conservation of linear momentum 10.2.5 Weak form of the total balance of the linear momentum 10.2.6 Conservation of energy 10.2.7 Soil-water characteristic curve 10.2.8 Dissociation of hydrates 10.3 Elasto-viscoplastic model for unsaturated soil containing hydrate 10.4 Numerical model and simulation 10.4.1 Simulation model 10.4.2 Simulation results 10.5 Summary References Chapter 11 A numerical model for the internal erosion of geomaterials 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Equations of motion and mass balance equations 11.2.1 General setting for the mixture 11.2.2 Partial stress and effective stress 11.2.3 Conservation of linear momentum 11.2.4 Conservation of mass 11.3 Evolutional equation of the internal erosion 11.4 Permeability coefficient 11.5 Numerical analysis method 11.6 Numerical results 11.7 Summary References Index
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