The Life Span: Human Development for Helping Professionals, 5th Edition
The Life Span: Human Development for Helping Professionals, 5th Edition, provides an in-depth look at the science of human development, highlighting theories and research that have useful applications for individuals working in fields such as education, counseling, and social work. The main purpose of this book is to provide the reader with information that can be translated into professional best practice applications. Throughout, the text reflects the contemporary view that life span development is a process deeply embedded within and inseparable from the context of family, social network, and culture.
Because the book is designed for graduate students, most topics, especially those that have special relevance to helping professionals, are covered in greater depth than in a typical life span text. The expanded coverage of research in these areas will enhance readers’ understanding of the scientific basis for application to practice.
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0135205921 / 9780135205921 The Life Span: Human Development for Helping Professionals Plus MyLab Education with Pearson eText — Access Card Package, 5e
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Cover Title Page Copyright Page Brief Contents Contents Preface Acknowledgments 1 Organizing Themes in Development Reflection and Action The Gap Between Science and Practice Box 1.1: Questionnaire A Historical Perspective on Developmental Theories Emphasizing Discontinuity: Classic Stage Theories Emphasizing Continuity: Incremental Change Classic Theories and the Major Issues They Raise Contemporary Multidimensional or Systems Theories: Embracing the Complexity of Development Applying Theory to Practice A New Look at Three Developmental Issues Nature and Nurture Neuroplasticity and Critical (Sensitive) Periods Universality and Specificity: The Role of Culture Applications Focus on Developmental Psychopathology Summary Case Study Journal Questions Key Concepts 2 Genetics, Epigenetics, and the Brain: The Fundamentals of Behavioral Development The Nature–Nurture Illusion Epigenesis and Coaction Conception and Early Growth Defining Epigenesis and Coaction The Cell as the Scene of the Action Gene Regulation: The Heart of Coaction More About Genes Atypical Development The Influence of Defective Gene Alleles The Influence of Chromosomal Abnormalities Teratogenic Influences Nutritional Influences The Developing Brain Early Prenatal Brain Development Box 2.1: The Major Structures of the Brain Structure and Function of Neurons Later Prenatal Brain Development Postnatal Brain Development The Developing Stress and Adaptation System What Is Stress? The Architecture of the Stress Response Toxic Stress and Allostatic Overload Box 2.2: Do Numbers Matter? Early Adverse Experiences Add Up Applications Summary Case Study Journal Questions Key Concepts 3 Cognitive Development in the Early Years Piaget’s Constructivist Theory Box 3.1: Biographical Sketch: Jean Piaget Infant Cognition: The Sensorimotor Stage Understanding Objects Remembering Having and Inferring Intentions Preschoolers’ Cognition: The Preoperational Stage Taking Control: The Mind in Charge Understanding Numbers Understanding the Mind Understanding Language Box 3.2: Early Childhood Education: Helping All Children Succeed Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Box 3.3: Biographical Sketch: Lev S. Vygotsky Applications Focus on Developmental Psychopathology Summary Case Study Journal Questions Key Concepts 4 Emotional and Social Development in the Early Years Emotions: Functions, Nature and Development Functions of Emotions What Are Emotions? Are There Basic Emotions? The View from Neuroscience How Do Emotions Develop? The Early Development of Emotion Regulation Attachment: Early Social Relationships Box 4.1: Two Biographical Sketches: John Bowlby and Mary D. Salter Ainsworth Box 4.2: A Biographical Sketch: Erik H. Erikson The Developing Bond Between Infant and Caregiver The Biology of Infant Attachment Attachment Quality: Not All Attachments Are Alike Linking Quality of Caregiving to Attachment Quality Sensitive and Insensitive Parenting The Child’s Role in Attachment: Infant Temperament Mothers and Fathers Box 4.3: Does Day Care Pose a Risk to Infants? Cultural Influences on Infant Attachment The Importance of Early Attachments Working Models of Attachment Parenting Practices Versus Relationship Quality in Infant Development Attachment in Context Applications Focus on Developmental Psychopathology Summary Case Study Journal Questions Key Concepts 5 The Emerging Self and Socialization in the Early Years The Self‐System Traditional Conceptions of the Self‐System The Early Development of the Self‐System The Beginnings of the “I” and the “Me” Roots of Self‐Regulation Early Socialization: Parenting and the Development of the Self‐System The Dimensions of Parenting Style Four Parenting Styles Parenting Style and Child Outcomes Parenting Practices: Methods of Control Box 5.1: Time‐Out: Getting it Right Moderators of Parenting and Parenting Effectiveness Conscience: The Beginnings of a Moral Self Applications Summary Case Study Journal Questions Key Concepts 6 Realms of Cognition in Middle Childhood Brain and Behavior Cognitive Development Piaget’s View: The Emergence of Concrete Operations Box 6.1: Techno‐Kids: Cognitive Development in a Wired World An Alternative Perspective: The Information Processing Approach Some Other Approaches to Understanding Cognitive Development Focus on Memory: Why Does It Improve in Middle Childhood? Box 6.2: Children’s Eyewitness Testimony Cognitive Development and Formal Schooling Box 6.3: Children of Immigrant Families Social Cognition The Importance of Friendships How Perspective Taking Develops in the Middle Years of Childhood Perspective Taking and Friendship Development Selman’s Stages of Friendship Development Selman’s Framework for Friendship Applications Summary Case Study Journal Questions Key Concepts 7 Self and Moral Development: Middle Childhood Through Early Adolescence Self‐Concept The Development of Self‐Concept—An Overview The Structure of Self‐Concept Influences on the Development of Self‐Concept Understanding Different Kinds of Self‐Valuing: Self‐Esteem, Self‐Efficacy, and Narcissism Gender, Race, Ethnicity, and Self‐Esteem Differences Cross‐Cultural Differences in the Development of the Self The Moral Self Elements of Morality Some Classic Theories of Moral Development Children’s Prosocial Behavior Children’s Antisocial Behavior Applications Focus on Developmental Psychopathology Summary Case Study Journal Questions Key Concepts 8 Gender and Peer Relationships: Middle Childhood Through Early Adolescence The Biology of Sex Gender Role Development Gender Identity Box 8.1: Beyond Gender Constancy: Gender Identity, Social Adjustment, and Ethnicity Gender and Behavior Box 8.2: Gender Differences in STEM Fields: Why Do So Few Girls Pursue Math and Science Careers? Peer Relationships The Peer Group, Social Competence, and Social Skills Analysis of the World of Peers Measurement of Individuals Within the Peer Group Individual Characteristics Related to Sociometric Status Gender and Cultural Differences Stability of Categories and Outcomes Measurement of the Peer Group: Another Level of Analysis Why Do Cliques Form? Peer Groups’ Influence on Behavior Applications Box 8.3: Meeting the Special Needs of Boys Summary Case Study Journal Questions Key Concepts 9 Physical, Cognitive, and Identity Development in Adolescence Physical Development A Glandular Awakening The Growth Spurt The Changing Brain Imbalance in Adolescent Brain Development The Adolescent Brain and Stress Behavioral and Emotional Changes Sleeping – Or Not Emotions and Mood Depression in Adolescence Box 9.1: The Limits of Guilt in Adolescence The Emergence of Sexuality and Sexual Preference Sexual Orientation Cognitive Development Formal Operational Thought Information Processing: Sharpening Executive Functions Scientific Problem Solving Constructing Ideals Advances in Metacognitive Skill: Thinking About Thought Identity Development Some Basic Considerations Identity Status Assessing Identity Formation Developmental Sequence in Identity Formation Identity Development and Diverse Groups Box 9.2: Choosing an Identity: The Case of Multiracial Youth Applications Focus on Developmental Psychopathology Summary Case Study Journal Questions Key Concepts 10 The Social World of Adolescence Adolescent Autonomy and Social Identity The Peer Arena The Structure of the Peer Network The Role of Parents Because I’m the Parent, That’s Why . . . Raising Adolescents Parental Control Adolescents in School Leisure, Work, and Media Teens in the Workplace Adolescents and Media Risk‐Taking Versus Risky Lifestyles in Adolescence Who Takes More Risky Risks? Peer and Parent Influences on Risky and Deviant Behavior Egocentrism, Development, and Risk Society’s Role in Adolescent Problem Behavior: Then and Now Applications Summary Case Study Journal Questions Key Concepts 11 Physical and Cognitive Development in Young Adulthood Physical Development in Young Adulthood Brain Development Reaching Peak Physical Status Cognitive Development in Young Adulthood Logical Thinking: Is There Qualitative Change? Schaie’s View of Adults Adjusting to Environmental Pressures Postformal Thought Box 11.1: A Visit to the Grandparents: Two Perspectives Box 11.2: Helper Beware: Decision‐Making Pitfalls Applications Focus on Developmental Psychopathology Summary Case Study Journal Questions Key Concepts 12 Socioemotional and Vocational Development in Young Adulthood Love Adult Attachment Theory Research Traditions in Adult Attachment The Nuclear Family Tradition: The Past as Prologue The Peer/Romantic Relationship Tradition Box 12.1: The Benefits of Love: Stability and Change in Adult Attachment Styles Work Some Theories of the Career Development Process The Realities of Career Development in Young Adulthood Work and the Development of Self‐Concept Applications Summary Case Study Journal Questions Key Concepts 13 Middle Adulthood: Cognitive, Personality, and Social Development Life Span Developmental Theory Gains and Losses in Development: The Changing Architecture of Biology and Culture Development as Growth, Maintenance, and Regulation of Loss Defining Successful Development at Any Age Influences on Adult Development: Sources of Stability Personality The Link to Temperament Influences on Adult Development: Sources of Change Age‐Graded Changes History‐Graded Changes Nonnormative Changes Key Developmental Tasks of Midlife: The Continuing Pursuit of Intimacy and Generativity Intimacy: Marriage and Other Primary Relationships Box 13.1: Changing Families: Gay and Lesbian Couples and Their Children Box 13.2: When Parents Divorce Generativity: Making a Mark at Midlife Box 13.3: Men, Women, and Leadership Applications Focus on Developmental Psychopathology Summary Case Study Journal Questions Key Concepts 14 Living Well: Stress, Coping, and Life Satisfaction in Adulthood Box 14.1: Question from Cantril’s Ladder Box 14.2: Measuring What Makes People Happy Life Satisfaction: What Is a Well‐Lived Life? Worldly Goods and Well‐Being Personality and Well‐Being Relationships and Well‐Being Work, Achievement, Generativity, and Well‐Being Universal Needs and Values and Well‐Being The Importance of Meaning, Religion, and Spirituality Spirituality and Meaning Culture and Well‐Being Stress, Coping, and Well‐Being in Midlife Stress: A Review Stress and Growth Coping with Stress Stressors and the Body‐Mind Wellness The Affectivity Connection Applications Summary Case Study Journal Questions Key Concepts 15 Gains and Losses in Late Adulthood Physical, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Change in Late Life Challenge and Loss in Late Adulthood Box 15.1: The Burden of Care Maintaining Well‐Being in the Face of Loss: Successful Aging Box 15.2: Navigating the Transition to Retirement Wisdom, Aging, and Culture Social‐Emotional Experience in Late Life Experiencing Loss Death and Dying Bereavement Box 15.3: Funeral Rituals in Different Cultures Applications Summary Case Study Journal Questions Key Concepts Appendix A Practitioner’s Guide to Psychological Science Glossary References Author Index Subject Index
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