Kubernetes for Jobseekers: DevOps and Kubernetes interview questions and answers for freshers and experienced professionals
Get Tips to Answer the Most Frequently Asked Kubernetes Interview Questions to Ace Your Interview
- Gain hands-on experience working with both basic and advanced concepts of Kubernetes, the industry-leading container orchestration system, to proficiently deploy and manage your containers.
- Demystifies the complexities of Kubernetes making it accessible to anyone who is interested in IT.
- Learn how to handle challenges and overcome them while implementing Kubernetes.
Looking to land a job as a Kubernetes administrator, developer, or maintainer? Our book has got you covered! With clear explanations and practical examples, you’ll learn everything you need to know about Kubernetes and ace your interview with confidence. Kubernetes has become the de facto for container orchestration. The explosion in the use of Kubernetes has created a massive demand for Kubernetes administrators, developers, and maintainers. The purpose of this book is to explain the concepts of Kubernetes along with practical examples so that a job seeker can answer interview questions about Kubernetes with confidence.
The book starts with the importance of DevOps culture and showing you with examples of how you can incorporate it at the work. Next we cover all the essential Kubernetes components, including Pods, ReplicaSets, Deployments, Services, Ingress Controllers, and PersistentVolumes. The book then deep dives into Docker containers and explains how Kubernetes orchestration helps to scale your containers. It explores multiple ways of launching your Kubernetes cluster and deploying Kubernetes services. Towards the end, the book will help you to review Kubernetes’ capabilities and implementation differences in public cloud platforms such as Azure, AWS, and GCP. Plus, we’ll show you the best tips and tools for optimizing performance. And, finally, you’ll discover various tools for managing apps at scale.
By the end of the book, you will be able to answer the most commonly asked questions in a Kubernetes interview.
What you will learn
- Work with Kubernetes services in networking, storage, application /node management, and GitOps.
- Explore tools for monitoring and tuning Kubernetes performance.
- Learn how to diagnose and troubleshoot issues in Pods, Services, and Ingress.
- Use tools to create multi-environment Kubernetes deployments.
- Work with various Kubernetes tools, extensions, and plug-ins.
Who this book is for
Anyone who wants to be a DevOps/SRE/Kubernetes engineer should buy this book. It is also for professionals who wish to gain a deeper understanding of how Kubernetes works.
Cover Page Title Page Copyright Page Dedication Page About the Author About the Reviewer Acknowledgement Preface Errata Table of Contents 1. Kubernetes/SRE/DevOps Career Map Introduction Structure Objectives Career paths in Kubernetes Individual contributor (IC) path Management path Choosing the right career path for you Kubernetes’ inclusive community Women/PoC in DevOps/SRE Inclusiveness in the Kubernetes community Conclusion Points to remember Interview questions and answers 2. Kubernetes Adoption in the Industry Introduction Structure Objectives Hybrid-cloud Kubernetes ecosystem challenges Conclusion Points to remember Interview questions and answers 3. Introduction to DevOps/SRE Culture Introduction Structure Objectives DevOps/SRE culture Key elements of DevOps/SRE culture What does DevOps culture mean to you? Key elements for culture fit Learning Continuous improvement Collaborations Intelligent risks Relentless focus on customer Conclusion Demonstration Points to remember Interview questions and answers 4. Operating System Fundamentals Introduction Structure Objectives Key components of a computer Basic components of a computer Introducing Profesora Storage Workspace Process Computer architecture Try it! Need for an operating system Operating system concepts Network Exercise on networking Applicability to kubernetes Conclusion Next steps Points to remember Interview questions and answers 5. Containers/Docker Introduction Structure Objectives Processes and their relevance to containers Cgroups Introduction to containers Container registry Container networking Container storage Running a container Runtime configuration of a running container ENV variables Building your own container image Why do we need layers? Corollary Why is this information important for Kubernetes? Multi-stage builds Container images versus running container instances Stopping and removing running containers Container image management Push container Conclusion Points to remember Interview questions and answers 6. Kubernetes Basics Introduction Structure Objectives Need for container orchestration Mesos, Docker Swarm, and Kubernetes Kubernetes primitives Pods Declarative specification Pod specification Try it Replica sets Deployments Rollout strategy Version deduction DaemonSets Services Ingress controllers Try it Health checks using liveness, startup, and readiness probes Try it Physical volumes Persistent volume claims (PVC) Try it Conclusion Points to remember Interview questions and answers 7. Kubernetes Deployment Introduction Structure Objectives Consumer expectations Cost of doing business Calculating the availability, you need Kubernetes and deployments Blue-green deployment Try it Canary deployment Try it Comparison of canary and blue-green deployment Conclusion Points to remember Interview questions and answers 8. Kubernetes Services Introduction Structure Objectives Network plugins Container network interface (CNI) Networking policy Try it Storage Main limitations of block devices Advantages of attachment Network-attached storage Main limitations of NAS Object storage Physical volume claims Node management Try it Configuration maps and SShh… secrets Gitops Try it Conclusion Points to remember Interview questions and answers 9. Section Summary and Interview Questions and Answers Introduction Structure Objectives Section summary Operating system fundamentals Containers/docker Kubernetes basics and primitives Deployments using Kubernetes Kubernetes services/features GitOps Interview questions and answers 10. Kubernetes on Various Platforms Introduction Structure Objectives Windows support Azure—Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) Try it AWS—Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS) Try it GCP—Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) Try it Raspberry PI cluster—for fun and profit Raspberry PI Running Kubernetes on Raspberry PI Try it Conclusion Points to remember Interview questions and answers 11. Kubernetes Performance Optimizations Introduction Structure Objectives Computer performance Utilization Saturation and Errors (USE) methodology by Brendan Gregg Kubernetes-specific performance tools kubectl top command Kubernetes dashboard Top 10 performance optimizations Symptom #1 Optimization #1 Symptom #2 Optimization #2: Optimization #3: Optimization #4: Optimization #5: Symptom #3 Optimization #6: Optimization #7: Optimization #8: Symptom #4 Optimization #9: Symptom #5 Optimization #10: Conclusion Points to remember Interview questions and answers 12. Kubernetes Troubleshooting Tips Introduction Structure Objectives Kubernetes troubleshooting mental model YAML problems Troubleshooting pods Get pod information Get Pod definition Double-check by using events Logs, logs, logs Pod configuration Storage configuration Verify using exec into the Pod Flow chart summary Pod troubleshooting conclusion Troubleshooting services Get service information Get the service definition Make sure the labels match Make sure that the container port and the target port match Troubleshooting Ingress Get Ingress information Get Ingress definition Confirm that the endpoints are working Get the Ingress Pod Get the Ingress logs Troubleshooting flow chart DNS issues Worst case scenario Flow chart Conclusion Points to remember Interview questions and answers 13. Kubernetes Tools and Extensions Introduction Structure Objectives Helm Need for Helm Helm repo Sample deployment: Install WordPress Kustomize Helm or Kustomize? Tools for tools Helmsman Helmfile K9s Awesome Kubernetes Conclusion Points to remember Interview questions and answers 14. Kubernetes Plugins Introduction Structure Objectives Non-goals Plugins Service mesh Why do you need a service mesh? Istio Honorable mentions Network plugins Cilium eBPF-based network plugin Example usage Storage plugins Security plugins Authorization plugins Open Policy Agent (OPA) Gatekeeper Custom operators VM management from Kubernetes using KubeVirt AWS Fargate Conclusion Points to remember Interview questions and answers 15. Kubernetes Questions Introduction Structure Objectives Interview questions and answers Conclusion Index
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