Chemistry: The Central Science in SI Units, Expanded Edition, Global Edition, 15th Edition
For courses intwo-semester general chemistry. Accurate,data-driven authorship with expanded interactivity leads to greater studentengagement Unrivaled problem sets, notablescientific accuracy and currency, and remarkable clarity have made Chemistry:The Central Science the leading general chemistry text for more than adecade. Trusted, innovative, and calibrated, the text increases conceptualunderstanding and leads to greater student success in general chemistry bybuilding on the expertise of the dynamic author team of leading researchers andaward-winning teachers. MasteringTM Chemistryis not included. Students, if Mastering is arecommended/mandatory component of the course, please ask your instructor forthe correct ISBN and course ID. Mastering should only be purchased whenrequired by an instructor. Instructors, contact your Pearson rep for moreinformation. Mastering is an online homework,tutorial, and assessment product designed to personalize learning and improveresults. With a wide range of interactive, engaging, and assignable activities,students are encouraged to actively learn and retain tough course concepts.
Cover Periodic Table of the Elements List of Elements with Their Symbols and Atomic Weights Half Title Title Page Copyright Dedication Brief Contents Contents Chemical Applications and Essays Interactive Media Preface About the Authors Visual Walkthrough New Levels of Student Interaction for Improved Conceptual Understanding Visually Revised to Better Help Students Build Chemistry Knowledge and Understanding Continuous Learning Before, During, and After Class with Pearson Mastering Chemistry (I) Continuous Learning Before, During, and After Class with Pearson Mastering Chemistry (II) Continuous Learning Before, During, and After Class with Pearson Mastering Chemistry (III) Continuous Learning Before, During, and After Class with Pearson Mastering Chemistry (IV) Instructor and Student Resources Chapter 1: Introduction: Matter, Energy, and Measurement 1.1 The Study of Chemistry The Atomic and Molecular Perspective of Chemistry Why Study Chemistry? 1.2 Classifications of Matter States of Matter Pure Substances Elements Compounds Mixtures 1.3 Properties of Matter Physical and Chemical Changes Separation of Mixtures 1.4 The Nature of Energy Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 1.5 Units of Measurement SI Units Length and Mass Temperature Derived SI Units Volume Density Units of Energy 1.6 Uncertainty in Measurement Precision and Accuracy Significant Figures Significant Figures in Calculations 1.7 Dimensional Analysis Conversion Factors Using Two or More Conversion Factors Conversions Involving Volume Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Chemistry Put to Work Chemistry and the Chemical Industry A Closer Look The Scientific Method Chemistry Put to Work Chemistry in the News Strategies for Success Estimating Answers Strategies for Success The Importance of Practice Strategies for Success The Features of This Book Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 2.1 The Atomic Theory of Matter 2.2 The Discovery of Atomic Structure Cathode Rays and Electrons Radioactivity The Nuclear Model of the Atom 2.3 The Modern View of Atomic Structure Atomic Numbers, Mass Numbers, and Isotopes 2.4 Atomic Weights The Atomic Mass Scale Atomic Weight 2.5 The Periodic Table 2.6 Molecules and Molecular Compounds Molecules and Chemical Formulas Molecular and Empirical Formulas Picturing Molecules 2.7 Ions and Ionic Compounds Predicting Ionic Charges Ionic Compounds 2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds Names and Formulas of Acids Names and Formulas of Binary Molecular Compounds 2.9 Some Simple Organic Compounds Alkanes Some Derivatives of Alkanes Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises A Closer Look Basic Forces A Closer Look The Mass Spectrometer Chemistry and Life Elements Required by Living Organisms Strategies for Success How to Take a Test Chapter 3: Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry 3.1 The Conservation of Mass, Chemical Equations, and Stoichiometry How to Balance Chemical Equations A Step-by-Step Example of Balancing a Chemical Equation 3.2 Simple Patterns of Chemical Reactivity: Combination, Decomposition, and Combustion Combination and Decomposition Reactions Combustion Reactions 3.3 Formula Weights and Elemental Compositions of Substances Formula and Molecular Weights Elemental Compositions of Substances 3.4 Avogadro’s Number and the Mole; Molar Mass The Mole and Avogadro’s Number Molar Mass Converting Between Masses, Moles, and Atoms/Molecules/Ions 3.5 Formula Weights and Elemental Compositions of Substances Molecular Formulas from Empirical Formulas Combustion Analysis 3.6 Reaction Stoichiometry 3.7 Limiting Reactants Theoretical and Percent Yields Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment Strategies for Success Problem Solving Chemistry and Life Glucose Monitoring Strategies for Success Design an Experiment Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution 4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes How Compounds Dissolve in Water Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.2 Precipitation Reactions Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds Exchange (Metathesis) Reactions Ionic Equations and Spectator Ions 4.3 Acids, Bases, and Neutralization Reactions Acids Bases Strong and Weak Acids and Bases Identifying Strong and Weak Electrolytes Neutralization Reactions and Salts Neutralization Reactions with Gas Formation 4.4 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions Oxidation and Reduction Oxidation Numbers Oxidation of Metals by Acids and Salts The Activity Series 4.5 Concentrations of Solutions Molarity Expressing the Concentration of an Electrolyte Interconverting Molarity, Moles, and Volume Dilution 4.6 Solution Stoichiometry and Chemical Analysis Titrations Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment Chemistry Put to Work Antacids Strategies for Success Analyzing Chemical Reactions Chapter 5: Thermochemistry 5.1 The Nature of Chemical Energy 5.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics System and Surroundings Internal Energy Relating ΔE to Heat and Work Endothermic and Exothermic Processes State Functions 5.3 Enthalpy Pressure–Volume Work Enthalpy Change 5.4 Enthalpies of Reaction 5.5 Calorimetry Heat Capacity and Specific Heat Constant-Pressure Calorimetry Bomb Calorimetry (Constant-Volume Calorimetry) 5.6 Hess’s Law 5.7 Enthalpies of Formation Using Enthalpies of Formation to Calculate Enthalpies of Reaction 5.8 Bond Enthalpies Bond Enthalpies and the Enthalpies of Reactions 5.9 Foods and Fuels Foods Fuels Other Energy Sources Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment A Closer Look Energy, Enthalpy, and P-V Work A Closer Look Using Enthalpy as a Guide Chemistry and Life The Regulation of Body Temperature Chemistry Put to Work The Scientific and Political Challenges of Biofuels Chapter 6: Electronic Structure of Atoms 6.1 The Wave Nature of Light 6.2 Quantized Energy and Photons Hot Objects and the Quantization of Energy The Photoelectric Effect and Photons 6.3 Line Spectra and the Bohr Model Line Spectra Bohr’s Model The Energy States of the Hydrogen Atom Limitations of the Bohr Model 6.4 The Wave Behavior of Matter The Uncertainty Principle 6.5 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals Orbitals and Quantum Numbers 6.6 Representations of Orbitals The s Orbitals The p Orbitals The d and f Orbitals 6.7 Many-Electron Atoms Orbitals and Their Energies Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle 6.8 Electron Configurations Hund’s Rule Condensed Electron Configurations Transition Metals The Lanthanides and Actinides 6.9 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table Anomalous Electron Configurations Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment A Closer Look Measurement and the Uncertainty Principle A Closer Look Thought Experiments and Schrödinger’s Cat A Closer Look Probability Density and Radial Probability Functions Chemistry and Life Nuclear Spin and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Chapter 7: Periodic Properties of the Elements 7.1 Development of the Periodic Table 7.2 Effective Nuclear Charge 7.3 Sizes of Atoms and Ions Periodic Trends in Atomic Radii Periodic Trends in Ionic Radii 7.4 Ionization Energy Variations in Successive Ionization Energies Periodic Trends in First Ionization Energies Electron Configurations of Ions 7.5 Electron Affinity Periodic Trends in Electron Affinity 7.6 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids Metals Nonmetals Metalloids 7.7 Trends for Group 1 and Group 2 Metals Group 1: The Alkali Metals Group 2: The Alkaline Earth Metals 7.8 Trends for Selected Nonmetals Hydrogen Group 16: The Oxygen Group Group 17: The Halogens Group 18: The Noble Gases Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment A Closer Look Effective Nuclear Charge Chemistry Put to Work Ionic Size and Lithium-Ion Batteries Chemistry and Life The Improbable Development of Lithium Drugs Chapter 8: Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding 8.1 Lewis Symbols and the Octet Rule Lewis Symbols The Octet Rule 8.2 Ionic Bonding Energetics of Ionic Bond Formation Electron Configurations of Ions of the s- and p-Block Elements Transition Metal Ions 8.3 Covalent Bonding Lewis Structures Multiple Bonds 8.4 Bond Polarity and Electronegativity Electronegativity Electronegativity and Bond Polarity Dipole Moments Comparing Ionic and Covalent Bonding 8.5 Drawing Lewis Structures Formal Charge and Alternative Lewis Structures 8.6 Resonance Structures Resonance in Benzene 8.7 Exceptions to the Octet Rule Odd Number of Electrons Less Than an Octet of Valence Electrons More Than an Octet of Valence Electrons 8.8 Strengths and Lengths of Covalent Bonds Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment A Closer Look Calculation of Lattice Energies: The Born–Haber Cycle A Closer Look Oxidation Numbers, Formal Charges, and Actual Partial Charges Chapter 9: Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories 9.1 Molecular Shapes 9.2 The VSEPR Model Applying the VSEPR Model to Determine Molecular Shapes Effect of Nonbonding Electrons and Multiple Bonds on Bond Angles Molecules with Expanded Valence Shells Shapes of Larger Molecules 9.3 Molecular Shape and Molecular Polarity 9.4 Covalent Bonding and Orbital Overlap 9.5 Hybrid Orbitals sp Hybrid Orbitals sp2 and sp3 Hybrid Orbitals Hypervalent Molecules Hybrid Orbital Summary 9.6 Multiple Bonds Resonance Structures, Delocalization, and π Bonding General Conclusions about σ and π Bonding 9.7 Molecular Orbitals Molecular Orbitals of the Hydrogen Molecule Bond Order 9.8 Bonding in Period 2 Diatomic Molecules Molecular Orbitals for Li2 and Be2 Molecular Orbitals from 2p Atomic Orbitals Electron Configurations for B2 through Ne2 Electron Configurations and Molecular Properties Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment A Closer Look Phases in Atomic and Molecular Orbitals Chemistry Put to Work Orbitals and Energy Chapter 10: Gases 10.1 Characteristics of Gases 10.2 Pressure Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer 10.3 The Gas Laws The Pressure–Volume Relationship: Boyle’s Law The Temperature–Volume Relationship: Charles’s Law The Quantity–Volume Relationship: Avogadro’s Law 10.4 The Ideal Gas Equation Relating the Ideal Gas Equation and the Gas Laws Gas Densities and Molar Mass Volumes of Gases in Chemical Reactions 10.5 Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures Partial Pressures and Mole Fractions 10.6 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases Distributions of Molecular Speed Application of Kinetic-Molecular Theory to the Gas Laws 10.7 Molecular Effusion and Diffusion Graham’s Law of Effusion Diffusion and Mean Free Path 10.8 Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal Behavior The van der Waals Equation Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment Chemistry and Life Blood Pressure Strategies for Success Calculations Involving Many Variables A Closer Look The Ideal Gas Equation Chemistry Put to Work Gas Separations Chapter 11: Liquids and Intermolecular Forces 11.1 A Molecular Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids 11.2 Intermolecular Forces Dispersion Forces Dipole–Dipole Interactions Hydrogen Bonding Ion–Dipole Forces Comparing Intermolecular Forces 11.3 Select Properties of Liquids Viscosity Surface Tension Capillary Action 11.4 Phase Changes Energy Changes Accompany Phase Changes Heating Curves Critical Temperature and Pressure 11.5 Vapor Pressure Volatility, Vapor Pressure, and Temperature Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point 11.6 Phase Diagrams The Phase Diagrams of H2O and CO2 11.7 Liquid Crystals Types of Liquid Crystals Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment Chemistry Put to Work Ionic Liquids A Closer Look The Clausius–Clapeyron Equation Chemistry and Life Liquid Crystal Displays Chapter 12: Solids and Modern Materials 12.1 Classification of Solids Crystalline and Amorphous Solids Unit Cells and Crystal Lattices Filling the Unit Cell 12.2 Metallic Solids The Structures of Metallic Solids Close Packing Alloys Metallic Bonding Electron-Sea Model Molecular Orbital Model 12.3 Ionic Solids Structures of Ionic Solids 12.4 Covalent Solids Molecular Solids Covalent-Network Solids Semiconductors Semiconductor Doping 12.5 Polymers Making Polymers Structure and Physical Properties of Polymers 12.6 Nanomaterials Semiconductors on the Nanoscale Metals on the Nanoscale Carbon on the Nanoscale Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment A Closer Look X-ray Diffraction Chemistry Put to Work Alloys of Gold Chemistry Put to Work Solid-State Lighting Chemistry Put to Work Modern Materials in the Automobile Chemistry Put to Work Microporous and Mesoporous Materials Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions 13.1 The Solution Process The Natural Tendency toward Mixing The Effect of Intermolecular Forces on Solution Formation Energetics of Solution Formation Solution Formation and Chemical Reactions 13.2 Saturated Solutions and Solubility 13.3 Factors Affecting Solubility Solute–Solvent Interactions Pressure Effects Temperature Effects 13.4 Expressing Solution Concentration Mass Percentage, ppm, and ppb Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality Converting Concentration Units 13.5 Colligative Properties Vapor–Pressure Lowering Boiling-Point Elevation Freezing-Point Depression Osmosis Determination of Molar Mass from Colligative Properties 13.6 Colloids Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Colloids Colloidal Motion in Liquids Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment Chemistry and Life Fat-Soluble and Water-Soluble Vitamins Chemistry and Life Blood Gases and Deep-Sea Diving A Closer Look Ideal Solutions with Two or More Volatile Components A Closer Look The van’t Hoff Factor Chemistry and Life Sickle-Cell Anemia Chapter 14: Chemical Kinetics 14.1 Factors That Affect Reaction Rates 14.2 Reaction Rates Change of Rate with Time Instantaneous Rate Reaction Rates and Stoichiometry 14.3 Concentration and Rate Laws Reaction Orders: The Exponents in the Rate Law Magnitudes and Units of Rate Constants Using Initial Rates to Determine Rate Laws 14.4 The Change of Concentration with Time First-Order Reactions Second-Order Reactions Zero-Order Reactions Half-Life 14.5 Temperature and Rate The Collision Model The Orientation Factor Activation Energy The Arrhenius Equation Determining the Activation Energy 14.6 Reaction Mechanisms Elementary Reactions Multistep Mechanisms Rate Laws for Elementary Reactions The Rate-Determining Step for a Multistep Mechanism Mechanisms with a Slow Initial Step Mechanisms with a Fast Initial Step 14.7 Catalysis Homogeneous Catalysis Heterogeneous Catalysis Enzymes Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment A Closer Look Using Spectroscopic Methods to Measure Reaction Rates: Beer’s Law Chemistry Put to Work Bromomethane in the Atmosphere Chemistry Put to Work Catalytic Converters Chemistry and Life Nitrogen Fixation and Nitrogenase Chapter 15: Chemical Equilibrium 15.1 The Concept of Equilibrium 15.2 The Equilibrium Constant Evaluating Kc Equilibrium Constants in Terms of Pressure, Kp Equilibrium Constants and Units 15.3 Understanding and Working with Equilibrium Constants The Magnitude of Equilibrium Constants The Direction of the Chemical Equation and K Relating Chemical Equation Stoichiometry and Equilibrium Constants Heterogeneous Equilibria 15.4 Calculating Equilibrium Constants Applications of Equilibrium Constants Predicting the Direction of Reaction Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations 15.5 Le Châtelier’s Principle Change in Reactant or Product Concentration Effects of Volume and Pressure Changes Effect of Temperature Changes The Effect of Catalysts Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment Chemistry Put to Work The Haber Process A Closer Look Temperature Changes and Le Châtelier’s Principle Chemistry Put to Work Controlling Nitric Oxide Emissions Chapter 16: Acid–Base Equilibria 16.1 Acid–Base Equilibria Arrhenius Acids and Bases Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases The H+ Ion in Water Proton-Transfer Reactions Conjugate Acid–Base Pairs Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases 16.2 The Autoionization of Water The Ion Product of Water 16.3 The pH Scale pOH and Other "p" Scales Measuring pH 16.4 Strong Acids and Bases Strong Acids Strong Bases 16.5 Weak Acids Calculating Ka from pH Percent Ionization Using Ka to Calculate pH Polyprotic Acids 16.6 Weak Bases Types of Weak Bases Relationship Between Ka and Kb 16.7 Acid–Base Properties of Salt Solutions An Anion’s Ability to React with Water A Cation’s Ability to React with Water Combined Effect of Cation and Anion in Solution 16.8 Acid–Base Behavior and Chemical Structure Factors That Affect Acid Strength Binary Acids Oxyacids Carboxylic Acids Lewis Acids and Bases Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment A Closer Look Polyprotic Acids Chemistry Put to Work Amines and Amine Hydrochlorides Chemistry and Life The Amphiprotic Behavior of Amino Acids Chapter 17: Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria 17.1 The Common-Ion Effect 17.2 Buffers Composition and Action of Buffers Calculating the pH of a Buffer Buffer Capacity and pH Range Addition of Strong Acids or Bases to Buffers 17.3 Acid–Base Titrations Strong Acid–Strong Base Titrations Weak Acid–Strong Base Titrations Titrating with an Acid–Base Indicator Titrations of Polyprotic Acids 17.4 Solubility Equilibria The Solubility-Product Constant, Ksp Solubility and Ksp 17.5 Factors That Affect Solubility The Common-Ion Effect Solubility and pH Formation of Complex Ions Amphoterism 17.6 Precipitation and Separation of Ions Selective Precipitation of Ions Qualitative Analysis for Metallic Elements Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment Chemistry and Life Blood as a Buffered Solution A Closer Look Limitations of Solubility Products Chemistry and Life Tooth Decay and Fluoridation A Closer Look Lead Contamination in Drinking Water Chapter 18: Chemistry of the Environment 18.1 Earth’s Atmosphere Composition of the Atmosphere Photochemical Reactions in the Atmosphere Ozone in the Stratosphere 18.2 Human Activities and Earth’s Atmosphere The Ozone Layer and Its Depletion Sulfur Compounds and Acid Rain Nitrogen Oxides and Photochemical Smog Greenhouse Gases: Water Vapor, Carbon Dioxide, and Climate 18.3 Earth’s Water The Global Water Cycle Salt Water: Earth’s Oceans and Seas Freshwater and Groundwater 18.4 Human Activities and Water Quality Dissolved Oxygen and Water Quality Water Purification: Desalination Water Purification: Municipal Treatment 18.5 Green Chemistry Supercritical Solvents Greener Reagents and Processes Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment A Closer Look Other Greenhouse Gases A Closer Look Fracking and Water Quality Chemistry and Life Ocean Acidification Chapter 19: Chemical Thermodynamics 19.1 Spontaneous Processes Seeking a Criterion for Spontaneity Reversible and Irreversible Processes 19.2 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics The Relationship between Entropy and Heat ΔS for Phase Changes The Second Law of Thermodynamics 19.3 The Molecular Interpretation of Entropy and the Third Law of Thermodynamics Expansion of a Gas at the Molecular Level Boltzmann’s Equation and Microstates Molecular Motions and Energy Making Qualitative Predictions about ΔS The Third Law of Thermodynamics 19.4 Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions Temperature Variation of Entropy Standard Molar Entropies Calculating the Standard Entropy Change for a Reaction Entropy Changes in the Surroundings 19.5 Gibbs Free Energy Standard Free Energy of Formation 19.6 Free Energy and Temperature 19.7 Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant Free Energy under Nonstandard Conditions Relationship between ΔG ° and K Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment A Closer Look The Entropy Change When a Gas Expands Isothermally Chemistry and Life Entropy and Human Society A Closer Look What’s "Free" About Free Energy? Chemistry and Life Driving Nonspontaneous Reactions: Coupling Reactions Chapter 20: Electrochemistry 20.1 Oxidation States and Oxidation–Reduction Reactions 20.2 Balancing Redox Equations Half-Reactions Balancing Equations by the Method of Half-Reactions Balancing Equations for Reactions Occurring in Basic Solution 20.3 Voltaic Cells 20.4 Cell Potentials under Standard Conditions Standard Reduction Potentials Strengths of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents 20.5 Free Energy and Redox Reactions Emf, Free Energy, and the Equilibrium Constant 20.6 Cell Potentials under Nonstandard Conditions The Nernst Equation Concentration Cells 20.7 Batteries and Fuel Cells Lead–Acid Battery Alkaline Battery Nickel–Cadmium and Nickel–Metal Hydride Batteries Lithium-Ion Batteries Hydrogen Fuel Cells 20.8 Corrosion Corrosion of Iron (Rusting) Preventing Corrosion of Iron 20.9 Electrolysis Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment A Closer Look Electrical Work Chemistry and Life Heartbeats and Electrocardiography Chemistry Put to Work Batteries for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Chemistry Put to Work Electrometallurgy of Aluminum Chapter 21: Nuclear Chemistry 21.1 Radioactivity and Nuclear Equations Nuclear Equations Types of Radioactive Decay 21.2 Patterns of Nuclear Stability Neutron-to-Proton Ratio Radioactive Decay Chains Further Observations Nuclear Transmutations Accelerating Charged Particles Reactions Involving Neutrons Transuranium Elements 21.3 Rates of Radioactive Decay Radiometric Dating Calculations Based on Half-Life 21.4 Detection of Radioactivity Radiotracers 21.5 Energy Changes in Nuclear Reactions Nuclear Binding Energies Nuclear Power: Fission Nuclear Reactors Nuclear Waste Nuclear Power: Fusion 21.6 Radiation in the Environment and Living Systems Radiation Doses Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment Chemistry and Life Medical Applications of Radiotracers A Closer Look The Dawning of the Nuclear Age A Closer Look Nuclear Synthesis of the Elements Chemistry and Life Radiation Therapy Chapter 22: Chemistry of the Nonmetals 22.1 Periodic Trends and Chemical Reactions Chemical Reactions 22.2 Hydrogen Isotopes of Hydrogen Properties of Hydrogen Production of Hydrogen Uses of Hydrogen Binary Hydrogen Compounds 22.3 Group 18: The Noble Gases Noble Gas Compounds 22.4 Group 17: The Halogens Properties and Production of the Halogens Uses of the Halogens The Hydrogen Halides Interhalogen Compounds Oxyacids and Oxyanions 22.5 Oxygen Properties of Oxygen Production of Oxygen Uses of Oxygen Ozone Oxides Peroxides and Superoxides 22.6 The Other Group 16 Elements: S, Se, Te, and Po Occurrence and Production of S, Se, and Te Properties and Uses of Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurium Sulfides Oxides, Oxyacids, and Oxyanions of Sulfur 22.7 Nitrogen Properties of Nitrogen Production and Uses of Nitrogen Hydrogen Compounds of Nitrogen Oxides and Oxyacids of Nitrogen 22.8 The Other Group 15 Elements: P, As, Sb, and Bi Occurrence, Isolation, and Properties of Phosphorus Phosphorus Halides Oxy Compounds of Phosphorus 22.9 Carbon Elemental Forms of Carbon Oxides of Carbon Carbonic Acid and Carbonates Carbides 22.10 The Other Group 14 Elements: Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb General Characteristics of the Group 14 Elements Occurrence and Preparation of Silicon Silicates Glass Silicones 22.11 Boron Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment A Closer Look The Hydrogen Economy Chemistry and Life Nitroglycerin, Nitric Oxide, and Heart Disease Chemistry and Life Arsenic in Drinking Water Chemistry Put to Work Carbon Fibers and Composites Chapter 23: Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry 23.1 The Transition Metals Physical Properties Electron Configurations and Oxidation States Magnetism 23.2 Transition-Metal Complexes The Development of Coordination Chemistry: Werner’s Theory The Metal–Ligand Bond Charges, Coordination Numbers, and Geometries 23.3 Common Ligands in Coordination Chemistry Metals and Chelates in Living Systems 23.4 Nomenclature and Isomerism in Coordination Chemistry Isomerism Constitutional Isomerism Stereoisomerism 23.5 Color and Magnetism in Coordination Chemistry Color Magnetism of Coordination Compounds 23.6 Crystal-Field Theory Electron Configurations in Octahedral Complexes Tetrahedral and Square-Planar Complexes Chapter Summary and Key Terms Learning Outcomes Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment A Closer Look Entropy and the Chelate Effect Chemistry and Life The Battle for Iron in Living Systems A Closer Look Charge-Transfer Color Chapter 24: The Chemistry of Organic Compounds 24.1 General Characteristics of Organic Molecules The Structure of Organic Molecules The Stabilities of Organic Molecules 24.2 An Introduction to Hydrocarbons Alkanes Applications and Physical Properties of Alkanes Homologous Series 24.3 Structures of Alkanes Alkane Shape and Conformations Constitutional/Structural Isomers 24.4 Alkane Nomenclature 24.5 Cycloalkanes 24.6 Organic Functional Groups 24.7 Reactions of Alkanes Combustion Classification of C and H Free-Radical Reactions and Electron Movement Chapter Summary and Key Terms Key Skills Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment Chemistry and Life Petroleum Products Chemistry and Life Structure–Activity Relationships A Closer Look Reactivity by Carbon Classification Chapter 25: Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds 25.1 Stereochemistry in Organic Chemistry 25.2 Cis–Trans Isomerism in Cycloalkanes 25.3 Chirality in Organic Compounds 25.4 Measuring Optical Activity 25.5 Absolute Stereochemistry Using Priority Rules to Find a Stereocenter’s Absolute Configuration 25.6 Molecules with More than One Stereocenter Resolution: Separating Enantiomers Chapter Summary and Key Terms Key Skills Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment Chemistry and Life Chiral Drugs Chapter 26: Chemistry of Alkenes and Alkynes 26.1 The Structure of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons The π-bond Bonding in Alkenes Bonding in Alkynes 26.2 Isomerism and Nomenclature Isomerism in Alkenes—The E, Z System Alkynes 26.3 Arrow Notation and Resonance Structures: Electron Counting 26.4 Electrophilic Addition Reactions Addition Reactions Involving HX (X = Cl, Br, I) Addition Reactions Involving H2O Halogenation: Addition of Br2 and Cl2 Halohydrin Formation 26.5 Alkanes from Alkenes: Catalytic Hydrogenation 26.6 Addition Polymerization Making Polymers Structure and Physical Properties of Addition Polymers Chapter Summary and Key Terms Key Skills Key Equations Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment Chemistry and Life Terpenes and Isoprene Chemistry and Life The Chemistry of Vision A Closer Look Describing Charge A Closer Look Stereochemistry in Halohydrin Formation A Closer Look Hydrogenation Chemistry and Life Recycling Plastics Chemistry and Life The Accidental Discovery of Teflon® Chemistry and Life Vulcanization Chapter 27: Alcohols, Haloalkanes, and Ethers 27.1 Alcohols: Structure, Properties, and Nomenclature Common Alcohols Naming Alcohols Classifying Alcohols 27.2 Haloalkanes 27.3 Ethers: Structure, Properties, and Nomenclature Naming Ethers 27.4 Reactions of Alcohols Alkoxides Basicity of Alcohols Alcohols to Haloalkanes Dehydration of Alcohols 27.5 Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of Haloalkanes 27.6 Haloalkanes to Alkenes: β-Elimination 27.7 Substitution versus Elimination E1 and SN1 Reactions Chapter Summary and Key Terms Key Skills Key Equations Exercises Additional Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment Chemistry and Life Vitamin D Chemistry and Life The Solubility Nexus A Closer Look Crown Ethers A Closer Look Molecularity A Closer Look Nucleophile or Lewis Base? Chemistry and Life Polymerization versus Macrocyclization Chapter 28: Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carbohydrates 28.1 Aldehydes, Ketones, and the Carbonyl Group 28.2 Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones Oxidation of 1° and 2° Alcohols Ozonolysis 28.3 Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones Addition of Carbon Nucleophiles—Grignard Reactions Addition of Nitrogen and Oxygen Nucleophiles: Formation of Imines and Acetals Reduction Reactions Cyanohydrins Tautomerism in Aldehydes and Ketones Halogenation of Aldehydes and Ketones 28.4 Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Cyclic versus Open-Chain Structures Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides Chapter Summary and Key Terms Key Skills Key Equations Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment Chemistry and Life Glucosamine Chemistry and Life Cyclodextrins Chemistry and Life Vitamin C Chapter 29: Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives 29.1 Carboxylic Acids Structure, Properties, and Nomenclature Acidity 29.2 Preparation of Carboxylic Acids 29.3 Esters and Esterification 29.4 Fats, Oils, and Waxes Soaps and Detergents 29.5 Acid Chlorides, Anhydrides, and Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution 29.6 Condensation Polymerization Polymers for Medicine Chapter Summary and Key Terms Key Skills Key Equations Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment Chemistry and Life Steroids Chemistry and Life Towards the Plastic Car Chemistry and Life Biodegradable Sutures Chapter 30: Benzene and its Derivatives 30.1 The Structure of Benzene Bonding in Benzene 30.2 Isomerism and Nomenclature in Aromatic Compounds Phenols 30.3 Aromaticity 30.4 Acidity of Phenols 30.5 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS) Reactions Directing Groups and Substitution Effects Chapter Summary and Key Terms Key Skills Key Equations Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment Chemistry and Life The Discovery of Liquid Crystals A Closer Look Organic Dyes Chapter 31: Nitrogen-Containing Organic Compounds 31.1 Amines and the Amide Bond Amines Reactivity of Amines Synthesis of Amines Amides 31.2 Amino Acids Acid–Base Properties Reactions Involving Amino Acids 31.3 Proteins, Peptides, and Enzymes Coding Peptides Protein Structure Enzymes Sequencing of Peptides and Proteins 31.4 Nucleic Acids and DNA Chapter Summary and Key Terms Key Skills Key Equations Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment Chemistry and Life Amines and Amine Hydrochlorides A Closer Look Sickle-Cell Anemia Chemistry and Life B Group Vitamins Chapter 32: Solving Molecular Structure 32.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 32.2 Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy The Spring Model Measuring IR Spectra 32.3 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Frequencies The Chemical Shift Sample Preparation Interpreting NMR Spectra Integration Spin–Spin Coupling 13C NMR Spectra 32.4 Mass Spectrometry Electron Impact Ionization Mass Spectrometry Interpreting Mass Spectra 32.5 Compound Identification Using Spectra Deducing the Molecular Formula of an Organic Compound Chemical Wet Testing: Tests for Functional Groups Using Analysis from Instrumental Techniques Chapter Summary and Key Terms Key Skills Key Equations Exercises Integrative Exercises Design an Experiment A Closer Look Using Spectroscopic Methods to Measure Reaction Rates Appendices Appendix A: Mathematical Operations Appendix B: Properties of Water Appendix C: Thermodynamic Quantities for Selected Substances at 298.15 K (25 °C) Appendix D: Aqueous Equilibrium Constants Appendix E: Standard Reduction Potentials at 25 °C Answers to Selected Exercises Answers to Go Figure Answers to Selected Practice Exercises Glossary Photo and Art Credits Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Common Ions Fundamental Constants Useful Conversion Factors and Relationships Color Chart for Common Elements
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