# Applied Quantum Computers: Learn about the Concept, Architecture, Tools, and Adoption Strategies for Quantum Computing and Artificial Intelligence

- Length: 956 pages
- Edition: 1
- Language: English
- Publisher: BPB Publications
- ISBN-10: B0BT7ZJW67
- Sales Rank: #772635 (See Top 100 Books)

Explore the tools and concepts for Quantum Computing

Key Features

- Offers a diverse range of perspectives from small businesses to multinational conglomerates on the potential of Quantum computing.
- Provides fundamental principles of quantum, optical, and DNA computing and artificial intelligence.
- Collection of hand-picked quantum computing-related frameworks, tools, and utilities for creating new computing spaces.

Description

Quantum Computing is a hardware, software and technical architectural design paradigm that change traditional computing including Boolean logic with quantum laws and principles at the algorithmic and hardware level. Its use cases and applications can be found in artificial intelligence machine learning, metaverse, cryptography and blockchain technology.

This book will help the readers quickly and accurately to understand quantum computing and related technologies by allowing them to make more informed and intelligent business and technical decisions. This book covers almost every aspect of quantum computing from concepts to algorithms to industrial applications. In addition, the book discusses practical guidelines and best practices for quantum computers and related technologies such as artificial intelligence, photonic and DNA computing wherever possible and as needed. This book prepares readers for the future and will assist them in dealing with any challenges associated with quantum computers.

If you’re interested in writing code, a quick overview of Q#, a quantum programming language, is included in the book’s appendix. Almost every chapter contains some quick answers to frequently asked questions, so you can get what you need right away. At the end of each chapter, a textual summary of the chapter and mind maps is provided for the readers, making it possible for them to obtain an overall impression of the ideas presented in a single moment.

What you will learn

- Learn the basics of modern computing that includes quantum, optical, and DNA computing, AI and cloud computing.
- Explore strategies for setting up a development environment for quantum computing implementation.
- Acquire knowledge of the frameworks and algorithms used in Quantum Computing, such as Deutch, Shor’s, and Grover’s.
- Understand the principles and operations of quantum computing.

Who this book is for

This book is for anyone who is interested in learning more about quantum computing, the various tools available for its implementation, and seeing how to meet the needs of modern businesses. In addition, those already in artificial intelligence, blockchain, or complex computing will find this book very appealing.

Cover Page Title Page Copyright Page Dedication Page Foreword About the Author About the Reviewer Acknowledgements Preface Errata Table of Contents 1. Tools for Imaginations, Innovation, Technologies, and Creativity Structure Objectives Plan of the chapter Mind Maps: An overview Mind Map and brain How to create a mind map Point of View (POV) Expert opinion Jargon busters Customer stories, case studies, and use cases Industry bites Thought cartoons / cartoons / TechToons What are TechToons? What are cartoons? What are thought cartoons? What are the differences between cartoons and TechToons? Mind Map of the chapter Conclusion 2. Quantum Physics as an Enabler of a Quantum Computer Structure Objectives Introduction Jargon Buster From quantum information to quantum physics to quantum computer Quantum computers? Why do we need quantum physics for quantum computers? Quantum 1.0 and 2.0 Quantum cryptography Quantum computer and AI Classical physics, modern physics, and quantum physics their relationships The birth of quantum physics Photons and quantum computers What is photoelectric effect?… by the way Let’s summarize: some fundamental concepts of modern physics and radiation Particles of light The event which triggered the modern thoughts: A bit of more history Atomic theory Foundation of quantum mechanics Wave function The Copenhagen interpretation Quantum electrodynamics Quantum personality: Richard P. Feynman The fundamentals concepts of quantum computing Superposition Entanglement Coherence Decoherence Fault tolerance Interference Tunneling Randomness in behavior Uncertainty principle and how it is useful in QC Young’s double-slit experiment The interrelation between entanglement and coherence Before quantum physics, there is no law… right …!!! The definition of quantum computers … revisited Why quantum computers … now Tell me how QC will work with today’s technologies One of the major theories for quantum computers: The church-Turing Principle (CTP) The discussion continues: Church-Turing Principle (CTP), quantum Turing machine and universal quantum computer Universal quantum computer The soul of quantum computers: The impact of algorithms Quantum computing supremacy Point of view: Seth Lloyd on Universe as QC Quantum computing use cases Sample opportunity areas for quantum computing: explanations for few important ones The social and commercial effects of quantum technology Story 1: quantum organization and leadership Quantum computers: just a piece of a holistic system Facts form research, innovation, and industry Some questions and answers Human brain and quantum computers: the QuBrain project Mind Map for the chapter Conclusion References Important terms for the chapter: refer to this when required IT terminology Qubits associated terminologies 3. Mathematics of Quantum Computers: The Fundamentals Objectives Structure Introduction Development of mathematics and physics Quantum computers and mathematics Number system Euler’s formula Some additional facts and types of number system Structures in the number system Polynomials Number of systems in context of computer science Details of computer’s relevent number systems Details of the binary number system Laws of Boolean algebra Symbols Truth tables for the laws of Boolean Basic truth tables Summary of Boolean algebra Implications Description of the laws of Boolean algebra Boolean algebra functions Use of Boolean algebra using its laws Operands and operators in quantum mechanics Importance of basic probability algebra and theory Essential concepts of probability Essential concepts of algebra Review of Pythagoras theorem Essential concepts of vectors Vector addition and multiplication Multiplying a Bra by a Ket Concepts of matrices, different operations on matrices Order of a matrix Transpose of a matrix Various common operations on matrices and their properties Matrices addition Matrices subtraction Matrices multiplication How to calculate? Tensor and tensor product Old wine in a new bottle!!! Essential of trigonometry concepts An important compilation of results related to Trigonometry and calculus Quantum mechanics, quantum computers, and vectors Observables and Hermitian operators Jargon Buster Mind Map for the chapter Conclusion 4. From Bits to Qubits to Qubytes Structure Objective Introduction A miracle called quantum computers Information theory, thermodynamics, and computation The start of the journey: from then to now Before we move further, some additional thoughts on a quantum computer Quantum parallelism Spin and Qubit The physics of atom in a nutshell – facts and figures Spin states and charges Jargon box Further details on state What is this up and down state How to get up and down state experientially Significance of states Summary of essential notions, math, and The Stern–Gerlach experimentbin context of Dirac theory Qubit and entanglement Spin Quantum number and energy state One additional point about Qubit and electron states Electron spin theory Observer effect Observer effect, no-cloning theorem, and quantum computing From classical bit to Qubit Qubit detailed Quick Facts So how is the Qubit created? Caution!!! More Qubit is not equal to faster computation Systematic explanation of qubits, quantum gates, and circuits How to measure Qubit Quantum gates From quantum gate to quantum circuit Details of quantum circuts Quantum register Quantum register: working Inputs and outputs of quantum circuits: representations, logic, and theory Controlled gates Measurement operator A summary of the key symbols Quantum teleportation and its circuit diagram Let’s go into a bit detail: mechanics, mathematics, and measurements of Qubit Single-Qubit gates Few additional key single-qubit gates Multi-Qubit gates Universal sets: moving from traditional gates to Quantum gates Multiple types of Qubit Components of a Quantum computer How to make robust quantum computers: welcome quantum error correction A complete quantum system from hardware to software Solving problems on quantum computers Hybrid quantum – classical computing Real-life working of Quantum Program: Microsoft way Case Study: Microsoft’s journey to quantum computers Other companies’ technology stacks Question and answers Story 1: Why Honeywell? Honeywell challengers Applications Mind Map of the chapter Conclusion References Important terms and concepts used in the chapter 5. Artificial Intelligence and Associated Technologies: A Review Structure Objective Introduction Intelligence and AI The AI hypes Can machines think? Let’s define AI, ML Why AI now? The relevance of AI Types of AI Sometimes hard, sometimes soft: AI computing paradigm What is Computational Intelligence (CI) and different variant of intelligent computing AI research and its impact on the associated subsystems Machine learning revisited Machine learning types Deep learning Let’s build AI projects AI, business of intelligence and the projects The essential skills for AI projects Does it mean managing AI projects are difficult? Relation between AI, business, and perfect decision Ingredients of a holistic AI solution: in the context of projects How to create an AI solution Cloud computing Internet of Things (IoT) What is big data? Data, data and data: I want to know it in detail, but technically Schema-on-write ecosystems Schema-on-read ecosystems Data lake Data vault Data analytics Data science Think holistically Building IoT enabled AI A pictorial real-life case study for IoT Building Big data-based AI solution The technology for Big data and AI The advantages of HDInsight Quantum computing and artificial intelligence? OK, now I want to understand the interrelation between AI, ML deep learning, and quantum machine learning Use cases for AI Story 1: Future of humanity-- integration of Brain science, AI and quantum computers Story 2: AI, culture, arts, and quantum computers Story 3: The security of an AI is an emerging topic Quantum use case 1: Quleap -- first integrated AI platform for small molecule drug design Quantum use case 2: Hyrax – the quantum discovery framework Hyrax Quantum use case 3: Detecting market instabilities Quantum use case 4: Optimizing radiotherapy treatments, fighting with cancer, and the quantum computing algorithm Mind Map for the chapter Conclusion 6. Quantum Algorithms for Everyone …!!! Structure Objective Introduction Adventures in quantum algorithms and problem-solving A case of quantum algorithms What is an algorithm by the way? Types of algorithms What are quantum algorithms How Quantum Algorithms are different from the classical algorithm Difficulties with the implementation of a quantum algorithms Computational complexity Complexity theory and Quantum computers The quantum case of complexity and computation Let’s program a quantum algorithm: Qiskit way Quantum algorithms in action A brief journey in the universe of quantum algorithm and computing How to input data into a quantum computing algorithm using the quantum gate model How quantum algorithms work The big classes of quantum algorithms Some important quantum algorithms The Deutsch Oracle Shor’s algorithm: Theoretical interaction The Fourier transform: an introduction Shor’s algorithm prime numbers: Generic interpretation of working Working of Shor’s algorithm: Step wise explanation Adiabatic algorithm Topological-Quantum-Field-Theory (TQFT) Algorithms Discrete-log Verifying matrix products Subset-sum Grover’s algorithm Uses of Grover’s algorithm Setup steps of Grover’s algorithm Steps of Grover’s algorithm Explanation of the algorithm Deutsch-Jozsa Matrix commutativity Group commutativity Quantum simulation Machine learning algorithms Finally a summary of important facts about quantum algorithms Quantum computing software platforms Story 1: Semiconductor spin qubits for construction of reliable quantum computers Story 2: Quantum compatible areas for algorithms Story 3: Quantum computing and corporate traction Provocative thought 1: Industries, quantum computers and way forward Provocative thought 2: The case of the right quantum computer for business Provocative thought 3: Industry transformation and quantum computers Mind Map Conclusion References and bibliography 7. Quantum Machine Learning Structure Objective Introduction Building a business case for AI The deal of quantum machine learning Roadmap for building, executing, and running quantum machine learning The current state of AI, ML, and deep learning technology The democratization of artificial intelligence Machine learning: libraries Machine learning and deep learning platforms Evolution of QML Holistic approach towads QML and QC Quantum machine learning and Quantum information processing Classical machine learning versus quantum machine learning Let’s explore QML Quantum data Hybrid quantum-classical models Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) Quantum speed-ups in machine learning Author’s POV on building machine learning / Quantum machine learning solutions Languages, Tools, Platforms, and QML Quantum deep learning Limits and discoveries in Quantum Deep Learning Benefits of Quantum Machine Learning (QML) Few important QML algorithms A few important applications of QML Algorthmic case study - Quantum Support Vector Machine (QSVM) Story 1: Quantum imaging Story 2: Quantum sensors a brief look Story 3: Quantum simulation Use case 1: LightOn’s optical processing unit Use case 2: Quantum control Use case 3: Chatbot and virtual assistants Use case 4: Robotics in the context of AI and ML Use case 5: 5G -- Present and future applications Mind Map Conclusion Important terms and concepts used in the chapter 8. Quantum Cryptography: The Future of Security Structure Objective Introduction Need, shift, and desire for cryptography The quantum computing threat to cryptography The thesis of quantum cryptography Understanding cryptography Classical cryptography Secret key cryptography Public key cryptography Limitations of classical cryptography techniques Problem with cryptography Importance of quantum cryptography Quantum cryptography : in context of physics Quantum cryptography versus traditional cryptography Photon polarization and quantum cryptography Polarization and polarizer Measurement and polarization Significance of quantum key distribution Lattice-based cryptography Hash-based cryptography Fully distrustful protocol Distrustful protocol Bit commitment protocol Some important other protocols BB84 protocol BB92 protocol Cryptography attack Quantum Internet How to create a quantum network Quantum internet consists of three essential quantum hardware elements Quantum communications, Quantum Key Distrubution (QKD) and Quantum Internet Quick Facts Pros and cons of expanding cryptographic infrastructure Teleportation Blockchain Bitcoin, Blockchain and their working Blockchain: the perfect partner for AI data Meeting the challenge--capturing the opportunity Quantum Blockchain How likely is a quantum attack on bitcoin? Quantum networks and classical digital networks: impact and advantages in brief Future-ready: quantum cryptography and its influence in comming time Story 1: Quantum computing-based recommendation systems Story 2: Disease spread, bacterial growth, and QC Story 3: How quantum computers will transform travel Story 4: Quantum computer and personalized customer experience Use case 1: Quantum prediction Use case 2: Caixa Bank journey to grow risk classification model through quantum computing Use case 3: Quantum computing and the automobile industry Latest research: path to quantum computing at room temperature Mind Map Conclusion References 9. The Architecture of a Quantum Computer Structure Objective Introduction Different views of QC architecture A review of concepts: in the context of quantum architecture A brief of quantum computation Journey of Qubit The scale of operation Bloch’s Sphere: a mathematical representation of the Qubit Additional facts about quantum gate A review of quantum hardware General discussion on Core Qubit technologies development: in the background of history The desire of building a quantum computer Architecture of QC General discussion on QC Quantum annealing and computers Quantum simulations Universal quantum computing Multiple types of Qubit technologies Topological QC Superconductor-based QC Trapped ion QC Quantum dot QC Nuclear magnetic resonance QC Diamond-based QC Photon-based QC Few additional important technologies for quantum computers and Qubits Let’s build a quantum computer: elements of a quantum processor Practicalities of quantum computers The simplest way to build a quantum computer Entangled photons detection: Challenges and resolution Baby steps for quantum architecture Startup stories: D-Wave revisited Story 1: Quantum chemistry Story 2: Quantum compilers Story 3: Quantum computer a developmental journey: adiabatic quantum computer Use case 1: Material design and quantum computer Use case 2: Let’s do the optimization: The QC way Use case 3: Development of new molecules and materials Mind Map Question and answers Conclusion 10. DNA, Quantum and Photonic Computers Structure Objective Introduction Some new types of computing A journey to the world of quantum, DNA and optical computing through AI Quantum machines, computers, and AI Optical computing, deep learning and AI DNA computers and AI The drive of DNA computing DNA and DNA computing: Details About Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) DNA computers: In context of traveling salesman problem The advantages of DNA computing How long will it take for DNA computers to arrive? Optical computing: a journey Understanding the optical computer Benefits of optical computing Not so good about optical computing Details of optical computing Laser transistor and optical computer Present and future of photonics in the context of optical computing Optical processor architecture Microsoft and programming Biology Automation of DNA and Microsoft Can we have a DNA-based computer act as a Quantum Computer too? If yes, then how? If no, then why not? How quantum, DNA and optical computers would work together? Question and answers Mind Map Conclusion 11. Let’s Realize It: Quantum Start-Ups and Giants in Action Structure Objective Introduction A story of startups The generation of start-up and giants collaboration Zapata Cambridge quantum computing Generative Tensorial Networks (GTN) Entropic labs HQS quantum simulations ProteinQure ProteinQure brings quantum-classical hybrid approach to protein design A collaborative effort of ProteinQure: Rigetti Computing and ProteinQure QC Ware Strangeworks Amazon quantum solutions lab A few highlights for Amazon quantum initiatives Microsoft Quantum computing at IBM Intel Rigetti computing The patent journey of quantum computing companies Patent 1: Accenture US patent for quantum computing – distribution of work effectively on classical/traditional versus quantum computer Patent 2: Analog processor comprising quantum devices (10691633) Patent 3: Quantum computing integrated development environment (US20030121028) Mind Map Conclusion 12. The Quantum Strategies Structure Objective Introduction A new way of doing business Quantum computing for getting business edge The risk of ignoring quantum computing Democratization of technology and race for quantum supremacy Datanomics, AI, and QC The realities of quantum computing Innovation, disruptions, business expectations and quantum computing Quantum software strategies Seizing quantum advantage for your business CIOs, business value, and quantum computing Business barriers Quantum computing market structure Market forecasts Opportunities to apply quantum computation on industry Innovating with quantum computing now Let’s be agile … in context of quantum computing incentives and machine learning (applicable for QML as well) Why do you need agile? Waterfall methodology Pit bits Agile disadvantages Agile usage Growth values Personal values Short- and long-term goals for corporates and additional thoughts on quantum strategies Mind Map Conclusion 13. The Human Side of Quantum Computer Structure Objective Introduction Interrelation of creativity and quantum computing Agility and modern organization Meaning of organizational agility Emotional, social, and moral intelligence Benefits of equipping technical teams with EQ and other behavioral competencies Innovations and innovative mindset Flexibility Creativity Holistic and bigger thinking Courage Quick action Skills requirements for QC team Additional and specific skills requirements of QC for an individual How to build a quantum team Qualities of great quantum team members Difference between leader and manager How to build data culture and train resource on innovative technologies Important roles and dimentions of a quantum team Team leader Team members Technology / Engineering manager Organizational Leaders Questions for transparency POV Mind Map Conclusion Annexure 1: Q# for quantum computation Q# features Q# Libraries Annexure 2: Python for Quantum computing Vectors, matrices, and tensors manipulations Arithmetic operations in Python Vector and matrix properties and python Annexure 3: Miscellaneous topics: reduction in emissions, global warming, fearless leadership and important facts Annexure 4: References, Notes and Bibliography Index

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